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Neanderthal Pendant Music background: "Neanderthal Song" © 2004 by ARCHURE (Will Chris Holley)

Recent findings show that Neanderthals did not go extinct; and that they did find their way into the gene pool (.edu links and wiki links). Learn to find Neanderthal Characteristics in those around you. I see at least a few (fellow workers) nearly every day.

"Idiots Guide to Human Prehistory" by Robert J. Meier Ph.D., 2003, pg 140, it says.....
1) Neanderthals are no longer considered a separate species, and
2) that Neanderthals did indeed get into our current day gene pool.


WIKIPEDIA QUOTE: "Genetic evidence suggests interbreeding took place with Homo sapiens (anatomically modern humans) between roughly 80,000 and 50,000 years ago in the Middle East, resulting in 1–4% of the genome of people from Eurasia having been contributed by Neanderthals" :UNQUOTE bottom of first paragraph at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neanderthal

BBC: Neanderthals 'mated with modern humans' http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/323657.stm

N.Y. Times April 25, 1999 Discovery Suggests Humans Are a Bit Neanderthal By Wilford http://cogweb.ucla.edu/ep/Neanderthal.html

FORMER LINK (now changed, Thanks Allot) http://news-info.wustl.edu/FEC/1999/neanderthal.html FORMER LINK QUOTED: "Portuguese skeleton shows extensive interbreeding between Neanderthals and early modern humans"
Now Replaced with http://wupa.wustl.edu/record_archive/1999/04-29-99/articles/neanderthal.html




Neanderthals have Larger Heads (and higher IQs)

PHOTOS = Cro Magnon on left, and Neanderthal on the right
Keep in mind that Neanderthals and Cro Magnon interbred long ago, there are many people in the world with some neanderthal characteristics, some more than others, some more or less pronounced (I had braces etc, which now diminishes some of my Neanderthal characteristics. The main things to look for, in those around you: slope of forehead, angle of lower jaw compared with upper jaw, and optial bun (its harder to estimate the optial bun, as no neck is shown in the photos, so where the neck ends and the skull takes over, just how far does the optital bun really stick out, due to the neck? Although I have a Neanderthal slope of forehead and Neanderthal angles of jaws, my Occipital bun appears non-neanderthal (but its hard for me to see, being the back of my head). Another thing to consider is, size of head. And the Brow is more pronounced in Neanderthals. Neanderthals tend to have larger crainal size. Also social characteristics such as a strong interest in art and music. Neanderthals tend to be Hip, while Cro Magnon tend to be Squares



The BOTTOM Photo (of 3) of the comparison of of skulls, shows how the bottom of the jaw is pulled inward on a Neanderthal, which is an easy way to find them amoungst you




Modern Day Neanderthal EVIDENCE:
http://www.wsu.edu:8001/vwsu/gened/learn-modules/top_longfor/phychar/culture-humans-2two.html
LINK QUOTE (bottom of 3rd paragraph): "The Neanderthal skull, second from right, has a brain size of 1500 cc, which is actually larger than the brains of most modern humans. The average for ourselves, Homo sapiens sapiens, is around 1400 cc"
(See my page on IQ)

http://www.zo.utexas.edu/courses/mcmurry/spring98/12/adrian.html 
FORMER LINK QUOTED: "Neanderthals have developed a reputation for dim-wittedness. However, in all actuality, the Neanderthal brain size was much larger than modern humans"

http://www.columbia.edu/itc/anthropology/v1007/castro/tsld005.htm 
Neanderthal
LINK QUOTES: "First thought to be cretins, but now seen as modern humans lacking iodine in their diet. Assumed that he was stocky and bent over, but was actually deformed by arthritis. Depictions of his appearance are changing. Neanderthal."
(Hypothyroidism is common in blood type O persons, the most common blood type).



Photo on left of Archure in High School, before braces; Photo right: Neanderthal Reconstruction

Neanderthal on Left, Cro Magnon on Right



Reconstructions are done from bone structure





WHAT DID NEANERTHALS LOOK LIKE?
WHAT DO NEANERTHALS LOOK LIKE?
These photos include reconstructions based on physical evidence
Neanderthal Child Reconstruction
Modern Day Neanderthal
Id rather go Naked than wear Fur

http://cas.bellarmine.edu/tietjen/Human%20Nature%20S%201999/chris_bosley.htm 
LINK QUOTES: "Art and music also became evidence that the Neanderthal was an intelligent creature."

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neanderthal

Neanderthal Characteristics Include: Occipital bun (back of head protrudes), large head, Freckles, Red Hair, Little or no Chin (and protruding teeth, I had braces), Short Shoulder Blades, large round finger tips, etc

Social Characterisitcs Include: Music, Art, burried the dead with flowers, and not all of them were vegetarian vegans like me


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neanderthal#Anatomy

WIKI QUOTE:

F Anatomy
Compared to modern humans, Neanderthals were similar in height but with more robust bodies, and had distinct morphological features, especially of the cranium, which gradually accumulated more derived aspects, particularly in certain relatively isolated geographic regions. Evidence suggests that they were much stronger than modern humans;[14] their relatively robust stature is thought to be an adaptation to the cold climate of Europe during the Pleistocene epoch.

A 2007 study confirmed that some Neanderthals had red hair and pale skin color; however, the mutation in the MC1R gene arose independently of the mutation which causes a similar pigmentation pattern in modern humans.[15][16]

[edit] Distinguishing physical traits

Neanderthal cranial anatomy.
Comparison of crania, sapiens (left) and neanderthalensis (right).The following is a list of physical traits which distinguish Neanderthals from modern humans; however, not all of them can be used to distinguish specific Neanderthal populations, from various geographic areas or periods of evolution, from other extinct humans. Also, many of these traits occasionally manifest in modern humans, particularly among certain ethnic groups. Nothing is known about the shape of soft parts such as eyes, ears, and lips of Neanderthals.[17]

Cranial Suprainiac fossa, a groove above the inion
Occipital bun, a protuberance of the occipital bone which looks like a hair knot
Projecting mid-face
Low, flat, elongated skull
A flat basicranium[17][18][18]
Supraorbital torus, a prominent, trabecular (spongy) browridge
1200-1750 cm³ skull capacity (10% greater than modern human average)
Lack of a protruding chin (mental protuberance; although later specimens possess a slight protuberance)
Crest on the mastoid process behind the ear opening
No groove on canine teeth
A retromolar space posterior to the third molar
Bony projections on the sides of the nasal opening
Distinctive shape of the bony labyrinth in the ear
Larger mental foramen in mandible for facial blood supply
Broad, projecting nose

Sub-cranial
Considerably more robust
Large round finger tips
Barrel-shaped rib cage
Large kneecaps
Long collar bones
Short, bowed shoulder blades
Thick, bowed shaft of the thigh bones
Short shinbones and calf bones
Long, gracile pelvic pubis (superior pubic ramus)
Bowed Femur




PHOTOS OF ARCHURE by ARCHURE; MODERN DAY NEANDERTHAL?
Neanderthal Characteristics Include: Occipital bun (back of head protrudes), large head, Freckles, Red Hair, Little or no Chin (and protruding teeth, I had braces), Short Shoulder Blades, large round finger tips, etc








CONTINUING WIKI QUOTE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occipital_bun

Occipital bun
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Occipital bun is a morphological term used to describe a prominent bulge, or projection, of the occipital bone at the back of the skull. The term is most often used in connection with scientific descriptions of classic Neanderthal crania. While common among many of mankind's ancestors, primarily robust relatives rather than gracile, the protrusion is relatively rare in modern Homo sapiens.

Some scientists suspect occipital buns might correlate with the biomechanics of running. Another theory attributes them to enlargement of the cerebellum, a region of the brain which mediates spatial reasoning, motor function, and many aspects of brain wave patterns, including gamma waves.

There are still many human populations which often exhibit occipital buns. A greater proportion of early modern Europeans had them, but prominent occipital buns even among Europeans are now relatively infrequent. They are still found fairly often among Basque, Lapp and Finn individuals. Bushmen from South Africa and Australian aborigines often have occipital buns also. A rare occurrence is found in the north of England where the occipital bun is widespread in south Lancashire.

A study conducted by Lieberman, Pearson and Mowbray provides evidence that individuals with narrow heads (dolicocephalic) or narrow cranial bases and relatively large brains are more likely to have occipital buns as a means of resolving a spatial packing problem. [1]

END OF WIKI QUOTE:






PHOTOS OF ARCHURE by ARCHURE; MODERN DAY NEANDERTHAL?
Neanderthal Characteristics Include: Occipital bun (back of head protrudes), large head, Freckles (I have), Red Hair, Little or no Chin (and protruding teeth, I had braces), Short Shoulder Blades (I have), large round finger tips (I have), etc. The nose is different, but Wiki says they only know the skeletal, not nose nor lips etc. My DNA is M343 (found in Spain, France, South England, near Portugal where Neanderthals interbred with Cro Magnon (link above in large font). A mans DNA is his fathers fathers fathers etc (he is also his mothers DNA but his offspring passes his fathers DNA (I question that, but am not a DNA expert), perhaps my fathers fathers fathers were Neanderthals (but the photo of the Neanderthal Child with long hair (above) looks like my mom's mom (DNA HV1 Ukraine), so I don't know if its my moms or dads or BOTH? (more details about my DNA test by National Genographic (a National Geographic project), but they are not up to date, as they say Neanderthals went extinct, we now know different (lots of quotes on this page, the Portugal story is from 1999, new).
Picture of Skulls: Left = Cro Magnon, Right = Neanderthal (from wikipedia)




Photo on left of Archure in High School, before braces
Photos 2 and 3 Neanderthal Reconstructions found on the web



WHERE DID NEANDERTHALS LIVE?

Maybe I should apply for Native European status, and move on to a Neanderthal Tribal Reservation in Europe? with Euro benefits? (like Native Americans get).
Its a BIG WORLD, with lots of DNA mixed here and there, everywhere, so I know there are OTHERS, maybe you? or someone you know? may be a Neanderthal.
A woman passes on her mothers mothers mothers DNA, and a mans DNA passes on his fathers fathers fathers DNA. It is most likely that there are many others with Neanderal DNA, mixed in with other races and world locations (Native Americans, Blacks, Asians), over 80,000 years, that can happen. After all, I am in Las Vegas not Europe.




MORE WIKI QUOTES:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neanderthal_extinction_hypotheses#Interbreeding

Interbreeding

Main articles: hybrid-origin and Neanderthal Genome Project There is another hypothesis that the Neanderthals were absorbed into the Cro-Magnon population by interbreeding. This scenario would render the Recent African Origin scenario obsolete in favour of a hybrid-origin scenario, since it would imply that at least a minor fraction of the genome of Europeans would descend from Neanderthals, who had left Africa at least 350,000 years ago. No evidence supporting this scenario has been found in mtDNA analysis of modern Europeans, suggesting at least that no direct maternal line originating with Neanderthals has survived into modern times.[11]

The most vocal proponent of the hybridization hypothesis is Erik Trinkaus of Washington University.[12] Trinkaus claims various fossils as hybrid individuals, including the "child of Lagar Velho", a skeleton found at Lagar Velho in Portugal dated to about 24,000 years ago.[13] In a 2006 publication co-authored by Trinkaus, the fossils found in 1952 in the cave of Pestera Muierii, Romania, are likewise claimed as hybrids.[14]

Based on an Oxford University 2001 study of the gene that results in red-headedness,[15] some commentators speculated that Neanderthals had red hair and that some red-headed and freckled humans today share some heritage with Neanderthals.[16][17] A 2007 study analysing Neanderthal DNA found that some Neanderthals were indeed red-haired, but the mutation to the MC1R gene which caused red hair in Neanderthals was different from that found in modern individuals, possibly ruling out that red hair is a trait inherited from the Neanderthals.



MORE WIKI QUOTES CONTINUED

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neanderthal#The_fate_of_the_Neanderthals

3 THEORIES:

1) Neanderthals evolved to a separate species which became extinct (see Neanderthal extinction hypotheses) and were replaced by early modern humans traveling from Africa.[42]

2) Neanderthals was a contemporary subspecies which incidentally bred with Homo sapiens and disappeared through absorption (see Neanderthal interaction with Cro-Magnons)

3) Neanderthals never split from Homo sapiens and most of their populations transformed into anatomically modern humans between 50-30 kya (see Multiregional origin of modern humans).

END OF WIKI QUOTE


LINK QUOTES: "Carved animal bone with two holes, suspected to be a musical instrument. Found in a Neanderthal site dating to approximately 60 kya."

ARCHURE hard at work

http://whyfiles.org/114music/4.html 


http://cogweb.ucla.edu/ep/FluteDebate.html  LINK QUOTES SAYS.....

"1. The center-to-center distances of the holes in the artifact are smaller than that of the tooth spans of most carnivores. The smallest tooth spans they found were 45mm, and the holes on the bone are 35mm (or less) apart; 

2. Holes bitten are usually at the ends of bones rather than in the center of them; 

3. There is an absence of dents, scratches and other signs of gnawing and counter-bites on the artifact; 

4. The center-to-center distances do not correspond to the spans of carnivores which could pierce the bone; 

5. The diameters of the holes are greater than that producible by a wolf exerting the greatest jaw pressure it had available -- it's doubtful that a wolf's jaws would be strong enough (like a hyena's) to have made the holes, especially in the thickest part of the wall of the artifact. 

6. If you accept one or more carnivores, then why did they over-target one bone, when there were so many other bones in the cave site? Only about 4.5% of the juvenile bones were chewed or had holes, according to Turk (p. 117)"
End of Quote from link

Neaderthals were the first hominids to live thru the Ice Age

Reasons for the Ice Age (wobble in earths axis) http://culter.colorado.edu/~saelias/glacier.html

And More on the Ice Age: http://culter.colorado.edu:1030/~saelias/elias.html

http://www.mnh.si.edu/museum/VirtualTour/Tour/First/IceAge/
QUOTE LINK SAYS: "The last Ice Age peaked about 20,000 years ago, after which the Earth again began to warm."

NEW ICE AGE DUE?:
http://www.whoi.edu/institutes/occi/currenttopics/abruptclimate_joyce_keigwin.html










www.ARCHURE.net